# Introduction

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The whole of this study is based on the concept of the 'KISS' approach,

'Keep It Strictly Simple' - KISS

This is fundamental in the best software or physical systems.

Always work from a proven correct (working) basis,

Avoid (or flag) assumptions,

Work on one step at a time,

Test your latest step before moving to the next.

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My original target was to find a simple, but solid, description of how an electron works internally.

In time, this has expanded dramatically, so that it might now be able to explain all the particles.

The project has fallen into three distinct phases:

1. Sort out a lot of misconceptions that are used in 3D (Newtonian) descriptions of the universe;

2. Enhance the Einstein-Cartan 4D theory for ALL the fundamental particles;

3. Study the impact of this on Quantum Mechanics.

Phase 1 - Newtonian level theory:

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1.1 Dark Energy

- This model shows that

real-matter particles possibly repel anti-matter particles.

1.2 Dark Matter

- Two models are possible contenders;

Both appear to be due to failures to use of fundamental theory

1.21 Newton's essential Scholium has NOT been used

- the misuse of Newton's spherical theory on non-spherical bodies.

1.22 'External' Hydrogen just outside of Galaxies, has been ignored

- the Role of the Hydrogen atoms that surround galaxies

is grossly underestimated.

1.3 Big G - The Gravitational Constant (Work in Progress)

- another misuse of Newton's spherical theory.

All of these can be well explained using 3D Newtonian Mechanics, provided that

Newton's theory is used correctly.

## Phase 2 consists of:

- building the complete set of atomic particles

in 'Enhanced Einstein-Cartan relativistic 4D Mechanics'.

- and then adding in two fundamental concepts

that were not used (known?) by Einstein.

## Phase 3 consists of:

- a study of the impact of this on Quantum Mechanics.

Quantum Mechanics will be affected, but the extent of the changes can only be guessed.

What is certain is that 'It will change!'

# Variations in Phase 1 - Dark Matter

There are a number of different solutions that have been proposed by various authors. They all differ in how they are built up. Worse still, their supporters and denigrators for each of these, contradict oneanother. The trusth is that no-one has yet thought the whole process through and through.

Kepler - proposed three laws:-

1. All planets move in an eliptical orbits with the sun at one focus.

2. A line that connects a planet to the sun, sweeps out equal ares in the plane of the planet'sorbit.

3. The square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of it's orbit.

Clearly there are some less emphasised rules behind this, but most of the other properties attributed to him have been added with the hindsight of Newton.

Newton - law of Gravitation was a much more complete theory, particularly for spherically symmetric bodies.

1. F = (G x m1 x m2) / r^2 where 'm1' is the mass of the body under study and 'm2' is the mass of the observer.

2. A uniform spherical shell of matter attracts a particle that is outside the shell as if all the shell's mass were concentrated at the centre.

3. A uniform spherical shell of matter exerts no net gravitational force on a particle located inside of it.

4. Gravitational Potential Energy is essentially the forces that would be experienced by a body of unit mass at that place in space. ????????????????????????????????

5. The above rules apply to spherical bodies only. Newton explicitly points out that non-spherical fileds do NOT abide by these rules, and he requests the reader to calculate such forces using equations that they develope for the purpose; he says that he does not have the time to expand the formulae further.

Galileo and Einstein - enhanced these rules to work under other rules of relativity'

These enhancements are postponed until the discussion of Relativity in Phase 2 of this project.